Islands lakeshore in Lake Superior is a world-class
destination for sea kayaking, luring paddlers with scenic
wilderness, ancient geology and a rich cultural history.
Some of the most popular attractions are the sea caves
located at several spots around the archipelago. The water
environment in the Apostle Islands is undoubtedly quite
complex and dynamic due to the interactions of winds,
currents, and the surrounding 22 islands at the site. Waves generated in
Lake Superior can diffract and reflect when they encounter
the islands and may combine to form extreme waves in a
process known as geometric focusing. This process is
applied to determine local regions of energetic wave
fields for use in wave power generation around the world. In addition,
significant energy and momentum transfers can occur during
the wave and current interaction, yielding extreme waves
that can affect the navigation and kayakers' safety. To
date information of wave climate in Lake Superior is very
little. Currently we are developing an in-situ Real-Time Wave
Observation System (RTWOS)
that can be accessed through any portable
wireless device. Furthermore a real-time INFOS-Apostle
is currently developed to provide real-time wave climate
in the Apostle Islands. Outreach efforts (see Wisconsin
State Journal Article has been continuously paid to
address the community and society needs. An energy efficient
push button Real-Time
Wave Kiosk System (RTWKS)
with a safety index for kayakers is also designed, built,
and installed at the Meyers Beach, WI, where most
kayakers/boaters enter water in Lake Superior. The
benefit of providing certain conditions in favor of the
occurrence of dangerous extreme waves/freak waves is
critical for the warning kayakers and boaters in Great
Islands in Lake
Real-time wave buoy and nowcast/forecast modeling
Sea Grant engineer retires, Superior Telegram, Feb.
Safety at Sea Caves, UW-Sea Grant, August 2018.
Career Solving Wicked, Sticky and Humongous
Coastal Engineering Problems, UW-Sea Grant, Oct.
on the Waves - All Ways Forward, UW-Madison
RTWOS, Friends of Apostle Islands National Lakeshore,
Tourism: Sea Caves Watch Project Saves Lives, Changes
Hands, NOAA-Sea Grant, June 2016.
the Torch: National Park Service Takes Over Sea Caves
Watch Project, Aquatic Sciences Chronicle, Vol 4,
observation system makes Apostle Islands sea caves
safer for kayakers, Duluth News Tribune, Sept. 2015
Islands sea caves safer for kayakers, thanks to UW,
Milwaukee-Wisconsin Journal Sentinel, August 2015
Caves Watch promotes kayaker safety in northern
Wisconsin, UW-COE, August 2015
Sea Caves Watch Project Saves Lives, Changes Hands,
UW-Sea Grant, Aug. 2015
Islands National Lakeshore Kayakers Gain Better
Real-Time Information On Water Conditions, National
Parks Traveler, Aug. 2013.
Campus: Apostle Islands kayakers get real-time view of
caves from shore, Wisconsin State Journal, Aug. 2013.
Safety Measure in Place for Apostle Island Sea Cave
Kayakers, UW-Sea Grtant Aug. 2013.
wave sensor warns kayakers, others of dangerous water
conditions, Great Lakes Echo, August 2012.
Caves Watch sensor deployment 2012 | Flickr, UW-Sea
Wave Information Available for Kayakers in the Apostle
Islands, UW-Sea Grant, July 2012.
Wave Information for Kayakers in the Apostle Islands,
UW-Sea Grant, Aug. 2011.
Caves Watch Council Tour, Aug 2011, Apostle Islands |
Flickr, UW-Sea Grant, 2011
wave information system at the Apostle Islands
Mainland Sea Caves, pp6-7, Wisconsin Great Lakes
sensor may improve kayak safety, NPS, 2009.
Safety at Sea Caves, Wisconsin Sea Grant youtube, July
Safety at Sea Caves, Aquatic Sciences Chronicle,
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