Water resources is essential for socio-economic development and for maintaining healthy ecosystems. In Dane County, Wisconsin, waters are precious and important for recreational activities, aesthetics, and defining the sense of place for residents and community. The growing of human population and rising levels of socioeconomic development have led to a rapid rate of water resource development and the replacement of naturally occurring and functioning systems with highly human-engineered systems. Meeting the needs for freshwater provisioning services has come at the expense of inland water ecosystems (rivers, lakes, and wetlands) that contribute to human well-being through recreation, scenic values, maintenance of fisheries and biodiversity, and ecosystem function. The grand challenge is to balance these competing demands by agreeing and determining ecosystem water requirements involving a societal decision of the desired condition of an ecosystem informed by data on the relationship between water resources and ecosystem services, and followed by a cognitive or technical response to determine the water quantity and quality necessary to meet articulated/consensus objectives. Furthermore evidence shows that climate change would impact the water cycle, affecting the vulnerability of water resources. Sustainable water resources management aims at optimizing the available water resources by applying (or developing) technologies, processes, and tools to increase the overall productivity of water for society.